Introductory Concepts
Elementary Relationships
Extensions of Verbal Behavior
Multiple Controlling Relationships
Building on the Elementary Relationships

45.9 Secondary Verbal Behavior and Echoics

With an echoic, the response-product of the speaker’s ongoing verbal behavior may be the prior auditory verbal stimulus in an echoic relationship. This simply involves saying what you have just said. To expand on this, see Skinner’s section on “What echoic is not.”

Echoic Behavior

A form of verbal behavior with the following features:

The response is vocal

It is controlled by a prior auditory verbal stimulus

There is point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response

There is formal similarity between the prior stimulus and the response-product

Formal and dynamic characteristics of both the stimulus and the response

The “meaning” of either the stimulus or the response

Whether or not the current response is reinforced

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