Introductory Concepts
Elementary Relationships
Extensions of Verbal Behavior
Multiple Controlling Relationships
Building on the Elementary Relationships

45.16 Review of the Mand

With the mand, the emission of a verbal response can be, at least in part, an establishing operation. Someone may say, “You should bet on the Rams.” We may then mand (having inside information), “ignore that.” The same process is at work when we say something ourselves and then say, “forget that,” or “ignore that remark.” Or if we have said something important, we may mand, “Did you hear me?” or “Did you understand?” These mands do not occur unless primary verbal behavior is occurring, but the analysis of why they occur is the same as that for any mand.


A form of verbal behavior with the following features:

The response is verbal

The form of the response is controlled by an establishing operation

The musculature with which the response is executed (vocal, written, gestural, etc.)

The type of reinforcement made currently effective by the establishing operation (may be conditioned or unconditioned, etc.)

Whether or not the current response is followed by reinforcement

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