Introductory Concepts
Elementary Relationships
Extensions of Verbal Behavior
Multiple Controlling Relationships
Building on the Elementary Relationships

17.4 Tact Example #1

Saying “dog” as the result of seeing a dog is an example of the tact relationship. If we say “dog” either because we see the word “dog” or hear it spoken, then the relationship is either textual or echoic, respectively. These latter two cases would not be tacts because the prior controlling stimuli are not non-verbal stimuli.


A form of verbal behavior with the following features:

A verbal response

The controlling variable is a non-verbal stimulus, which is an object or event or a property of an object or event

The musculature with which the response is executed (vocal, written, gestural, etc.)

The modality of the stimulus (auditory, visual, gustatory, olfactory, etc.)

Whether or not there is any reinforcement for the current response

The “correctness” of the response

A boy communicates with a poodle through a speech bubble.
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