Introductory Concepts
Elementary Relationships
Extensions of Verbal Behavior
Multiple Controlling Relationships
Building on the Elementary Relationships

18.3 Mand Example #1

Certain verbal responses are followed by characteristic reinforcement. By characteristic, we mean that a reinforcement for a certain class of response topographies is typically the same time and time again. For example, when we ask for “water” we characteristically receive water. We do not usually receive milk or a cookie, nor does anyone typically reinforce this response by saying “thank you” or “good, that’s right.”


A form of verbal behavior with the following features:

The response is verbal

The form of the response is controlled by an establishing operation

The musculature with which the response is executed (vocal, written, gestural, etc.)

The type of reinforcement made currently effective by the establishing operation (may be conditioned or unconditioned, etc.)

Whether or not the current response is followed by reinforcement

A man is laying on the ground with a cup of water next to him, showcasing 18.3 Mand.
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