Introductory Concepts
Elementary Relationships
Extensions of Verbal Behavior
Multiple Controlling Relationships
Building on the Elementary Relationships

20.6 First Type of Audience Control

The audience has three different types of control. First, if a stimulus such as a dog evokes only the response “dog,” then the presence or absence of the audience determines the occurrence of the response in an all or none fashion.

A black and tan dog with a speech bubble demonstrating 20.6 First Type of Audience Control.
A black and tan dog sitting.
No Audience


A type of controlling variable with the following features:

The audience is usually a listener in the presence of whom verbal behavior is typically reinforced

It controls a group of response forms

Whether or not the listener provides reinforcement for the current response

The size or specific nature of the response forms controlled

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