Article Quizzes

Earn CEUs by keeping up with the behavioral science literature! Reading a research article and passing a short quiz is all it takes.

Article Quizzes

Earn CEUs by keeping up with the behavioral science literature! Reading a research article and passing a short quiz is all it takes.

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A Case Study in the Misrepresentation of Applied Behavior Analysis in Autism: The Gernsbacher Lectures

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

This article presents a case study in the misrepresentation of applied behavior analysis for autism based on Morton Ann Gernsbacher’s presentation of a lecture titled ‘‘The Science of Autism: Beyond the Myths and Misconceptions.’’ Her misrepresentations involve the characterization of applied behavior analysis, descriptions of practice guidelines, reviews of the treatment literature, presentations of the clinical trials research, and conclusions about those trials (e.g., children’s improvements are due to development, not applied behavior analysis). The article also reviews applied behavior analysis’ professional endorsements and research support, and addresses issues in professional conduct. It ends by noting the deleterious effects that misrepresenting any research on autism (e.g., biological, developmental, behavioral) have on our understanding and treating it in a transdisciplinary context.

Edward K. Morris
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Assessing and Treating Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

Previous research implies that stereotypic behavior tends to be maintained by the sensory consequences produced by engaging in the response. Few investigations, however, have focused on vocal stereotypy. The current study examined the noncommunicative vocalizations of 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. First, functional analyses were conducted in an attempt to identify the function of each child’s behavior. For each of the participants, it was found that vocal stereotypy was likely not maintained by the social consequences. Following assessment, response interruption and redirection (RIRD) was implemented in an ABAB design to determine whether vocal stereotypy could be successfully redirected. RIRD involved a teacher issuing a series of vocal demands the child readily complied with during regular academic programming. Vocal demands were presented contingent on the occurrence of vocal stereotypy and were continuously presented until the child complied with three consecutively issued demands without emitting vocal stereotypy. For each child, RIRD produced levels of vocal stereotypy substantially lower than those observed in baseline. For 3 of the children, an increase in appropriate communication was also observed. The children’s teachers were trained to implement RIRD. Brief follow-up probes and anecdotal information implied that the treatment had a positive impact in the natural environment.

 

William H. Ahearn, Kathy M. Clark, Rebecca P. F. MacDonald, & Bo In Chung
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, , , articlequizzes ceusautism automatic-reinforcement response-interruption vocal-stereotypy
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder: A Pilot Study

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

Despite the demonstrated efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), many individuals do not respond to treatment or demonstrate residual symptoms and impairment posttreatment. Preliminary evidence indicates that acceptance-based approaches (e.g., acceptance andcommitment therapy; ACT) can be helpful for a variety of disorders andemphasize exposure-based strategies and processes. Nineteen individualsdiagnosed with SAD participated in a 12-week program integrating exposuretherapy and ACT. Results revealed no changes across a 4-week baseline control period. From pretreatment to follow-up, significant improvements occurred in social anxiety symptoms and quality of life, yielding large effect size gains. Significant changes also were found in ACT-consistent process measures, and earlier changes in experiential avoidance predicted later changes in symptom severity. Results suggest the acceptability and potential efficacy of ACT forSAD and highlight the need for future research examining both the efficacy andmechanisms of change of acceptance-based programs for SAD.

Kristy L. Dalrymple & James D. Herbert
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Classroom Application of a Trial-Based Functional Analysis

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

We evaluated a trial-based approach to conducting functional analyses in classroom settings. Ten students referred for problem behavior were exposed to a series of assessment trials, which were interspersed among classroom activities throughout the day. Results of these trial-based functional analyses were compared to those of more traditional functional analyses. Outcomes of both assessments showed correspondence in 6 of the 10 cases and partial correspondence in a 7th case. Results of the standard functional analysis suggested reasons for obtained differences in 2 cases of noncorrespondence, which were verified when portions of the trial-based functional analyses were modified and repeated. These results indicate that a trial-based functional analysis may be a viable assessment method when resources needed to conduct a standard functional analysis are unavailable. Implications for classroom-based assessment methodologies and future directions for research are discussed.

Sarah E. Bloom, Brian A. Iwata, Jennifer N. Fritz, Eileen M. Roscoe, & Abbey B. Carreau
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Increasing the Vocal Responses of Children with Autism and Developmental Disabilities Using Manual Sign Mand Training and Prompt Delay

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of manual sign mand training combined with prompt delay and vocal prompting on the production of vocal responses in nonvocal children with developmental disabilities. A multiple baseline design across participants verified the effectiveness of this intervention. All participants showed increases in vocal responses following the implementation of the independent variables.

Vincent J. Carbone, Emily J. Sweeney-Kerwin, Vivian Attanasio, & Tamara Kasper
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Acquisition of Intraverbal Behavior: Teaching Children with Autism to Mand for Answers to Questions

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying “I don’t know please tell me” (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2 participants. For 1 participant, tangible reinforcement resulted in increased frequency of correct answers, and direct prompting of correct answers was eventually conducted for the final participant. The IDKPTM response generalized to untargeted unknown questions with 3 participants. Results of person and setting generalization probes varied, but some generalization eventually occurred for all participants following additional training or interspersal of probe trials with training trials.

Einar T. Ingvarsson & Tatia Hollobaugh
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, articlequizzes ceusautism verbal-behavior
Teaching Effective Hand Raising to Children with Autism During Group Instruction

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

We taught 3 children with autism to raise a hand or keep both hands down depending on their status (e.g., having heard a target word, possessing a specific item) using modeling, prompting, and reinforcement. All 3 children acquired accurate hand-raising skills in response to progressively more difficult discrimination tasks during group instruction. The implications for preparing children for general education settings are discussed.

Shaireen M. Charania, Linda A. LeBlanc, Narmatha Sabanathan, Inas A. Ktaech, James E. Carr, & Kristin Gunby
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On the Use of Fluency Training in the Behavioral Treatment of Autism: A Commentary

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

The substantial demand for behavior-analytic treatment of early childhood autism has been associated with rapid dissemination of treatment procedures to practitioners and caregivers. This level of demand could plausibly induce premature dissemination of treatments that do not yet have sufficient empirical support. We argue that this might have happened with the use of fluency training for learners with autism and identify four areas of research that are necessary to ensure that dissemination efforts are better matched to the available empirical support for this instructional strategy.

Megan R. Heinicke, James E. Carr, Linda A. LeBlanc, & Jamie M. Severtson
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Reducing Biases in Clinical Judgment with Single-Subject Treatment Design

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

Psychological literature exposes a number of biases that can influence one’s judgment (e.g., pathology bias, confirmatory bias, hindsight bias, misestimation of covariance, decision heuristics, false consensus effect, and over-confidence in clinical judgment). Clinical judgment, the subjective method of arranging client data to establish a diagnosis and a treatment plan, can also be biased and may lead to inaccurate assessment and inefficient treatment. Taking repeated measures of symptoms, similar to the single subjects research design used in the behavioral sciences, may lead to better therapy because it reduces judgment bias.

Daniel J. Moran & Wendi Tai
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Cooper, Heron, and Heward’s Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed.): Checkered Flag for Students and Professors, Yellow Flag for the Field

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

At last, the field of applied behavior analysis has a beautifully crafted, true textbook that can proudly stand cover to cover and spine to spine beside any of the expensive, imposing, and ornately designed textbooks used by college instructors who teach courses in conventional areas of education or psychology. In this review, I fully laud this development, credit Cooper, Heron, and Heward for making it happen, argue that it signifies a checkered flag for students and professors, and recommend the book for classes in applied behavior analysis everywhere. Subsequently, I review its chapters, each of which could easily stand alone as publications in their own right. Finally, I supply a cautionary note, a yellow flag to accompany the well-earned checkered flag, by pointing out that, as is true with all general textbooks on applied behavior analysis, a major portion of the references involves research on persons who occupy only a tail of the normal distribution. To attain the mainstream role Skinner envisioned and most (if not all) behavior analysts desire, the field will have to increase its focus on persons who reside under the dome of that distribution.

Patrick C. Friman
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articlequizzes ceustextbooks
Relational Frame Theory: Some Implications for Understanding and Treating Human Psychopathology

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

In the current paper, we attempt to show how both the basic and applied sciences of behavior analysis have been transformed by the modern research agenda in human language and cognition, known as Relational Frame Theory (RFT). At the level of basic process, the paper argues that the burgeoning literature on derived stimulus relations calls for a reinterpretation of complex human behavior that extends beyond a purely contingency-based analysis. Specifically, the paper aims to show how a more complete account of complex human behavior includes an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, relating relations, rules, perspective-taking, and the concept of self. According to the theory, this analysis gives rise to a new interpretation of human psychopathology that necessarily transforms the applied science of behavior therapy. The current paper is divided into three parts. In Part 1, we provide a brief summary of the integrated history of behavioral psychology and behavior therapy, including their emphases on the principles of classical and operant conditioning as the basis for an account of human psychopathology. In Part 2, the core features of RFT are presented, including the three concepts of bidirectional stimulus relations, relating relations, and rule-governance that constitute critical components of the RFT approach to human psychopathology. The paper therein attempts to illustrate, with the use of clinically relevant examples, the ways in which these concepts can be used to understand psychopathology and psychotherapy. In Part 3, RFT interpretations of three central features of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), namely acceptance, defusion, and values are provided with a view to demonstrating the utility of basic RFT concepts in the treatment of human suffering.

Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Louise McHugh, & Steven C. Hayes
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, , articlequizzes ceusacceptance-and-commitment-therapy complex-human-behavior relational-frame-theory
Functional Analysis and Treatment of Arranging and Ordering by Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

Of the diagnostic features of autism, relatively little research has been devoted to restricted and repetitive behavior, particularly topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior such as rigidity in routines or compulsive-like behavior (e.g., arranging objects in patterns or rows). Like vocal or motor stereotypy, topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior may be associated with negative outcomes such as interference with skill acquisition, negative social consequences, and severe problem behavior associated with interruption of restricted and repetitive behavior. In the present study, we extended functional analysis methodology to the assessment and treatment of arranging and ordering for 3 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. For all 3 participants, arranging and ordering was found to be maintained by automatic reinforcement, and treatments based on function reduced arranging and ordering.

Nicole M. Rodriguez, Rachel H. Thompson, Kevin Schlichenmeyer, & Corey S. Stocco
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, , , articlequizzes ceusarranging-and-ordering autism compulsive-behavior functional-analysis
Establishing a Deictic Relational Repertoire in Young Children

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Abstract

Perspective-taking skills have been shown to be pivotal in a variety of social and interpersonal interactions. A better understanding of the process involved in building such a repertoire could be beneficial in a wide variety of language and social skills training programs. A relational frame theory approach to perspective taking involves a focus on deictic relations, such as I-You, Here-There, and Now-Then. The present study examined the effect of operant contingencies on deictic relational responding in 3 normally developing young (57 to 68 months old) children. In a multiple baseline across persons and tasks format, I-You, Here-There, and Now-Then deictic relational frames were successfully shaped as operant behavior. As the children acquired deictic relational frames at the Reversed and Double-Reversed levels, the children’s performance on traditional perspective-taking measures generally increased.

Timothy M. Weil, Steven C. Hayes, & Philip Capurro
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, , articlequizzes ceusperspective-taking relational-frame-theory theory-of-mind
Relational Frame Theory and Skinner's Verbal Behavior: A Possible Synthesis

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

The current article suggests a possible synthesis of Skinner’s (1957) treatment of verbal behavior with the more recent behavioral interpretation of language known as relational frame theory. The rationale for attempting to combine these two approaches is first outlined. Subsequently, each of the verbal operants described by Skinner is examined and subjected to a relational frame analysis. In each case, two types of operants are identified: one based on direct contingencies of reinforcement and the other based on arbitrarily applicable relational responding. The latter operants are labeled verbal because they can be distinguished from other forms of social behavior, and they appear to possess the symbolic or referential qualities often ascribed to human language. By applying relational frame theory to Skinner’s verbal operants, we aim to contribute towards the development of a modern behavior-analytic research agenda in human language and cognition.

Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, & Veronica Cullinan
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, articlequizzes ceusrelational-frame-theory verbal-behavior
Derived Manding in Children with Autism: Synthesizing Skinner's Verbal Behavior with Relational Frame Theory

To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.

Abstract

Mand functions for two stimuli (A1 and A2) were trained for 3 children with autism and were then incorporated into two related conditional discriminations (A1-B1/A2 -B2 and B1-C1/B2-C2). Tests were conducted to probe for a derived transfer of mand response functions from A1 and A2 to C1 and C2, respectively. When 1 participant failed to demonstrate derived transfer of mand response functions, transfer training using exemplars was conducted. When participants had demonstrated derived transfer of mand functions, the X1 and X2 tokens that were employed as reinforcers for mand responses were incorporated into two conditional discriminations (X1-Y1/X2-Y2 and Y1-Z1/Y2-Z2). Tests were conducted for derived transfer of reinforcing functions. Finally, tests were conducted to determine if the participants would demonstrate derived manding for the derived reinforcers (present C1 and C2 to mand for Z1 and Z2, respectively). Derived transfer of functions was observed when the sequence of training and testing was reversed (i.e., training and testing reinforcing functions before mand response functions) and when only minimal instructions were provided.

Carol Murphy, Dermot Barnes-Holmes, & Yvonne Barnes-Holmes
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, , , articlequizzes ceusautism mand relational-frame-theory verbal-behavior
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An Intro to RFT

Fantastic presentation and content. Liked the frequent learning checks to be sure we could understand what was being taught. Nice format too. Very easy to use. I loved this course and look forward to more!

Great learning experience! much better than a textbook =.)

Great and introductory course on RFT

Very comprehensive in an easy to understand language. Great examples and visuals to explain concepts.
I think this course should be more than 6 CEUs though.
Highly recommend.

Great info and a touch of humor

I had to purchase the module for graduate school. I found the information and presentation engaging and informative. I would gladly purchase another module from foxylearning.

Amazing

I really learned a very complex topic in a simple way where they broke down the topics and really made sure your understanding of them was clear before moving onto the next.