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Should You Order the Feedback Sandwich? Efficacy of Feedback Sequence and Timing

Amy J. Henley & Florence D. DiGennaro Reed
1 Learning, Supervision CEU | Article Quiz
5.00 out of 5
(10 customer reviews)


Read the following article and pass a 5-question quiz on it:

Henley, A. J., & DiGennaro Reed, F. D. (2015). Should you order the feedback sandwich? Efficacy of feedback sequence and timing. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 35, 321-335.

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To earn credit, you will be required to read the article and pass a 5-question quiz about it. You can retake the quiz as many times as needed, but you will not receive exactly the same questions each time.


This study sought to investigate the efficacy of feedback sequence—namely, the feedback sandwich—and timing on performance. Undergraduate participants performed simulated office tasks, each associated with a feedback sequence (positive–corrective–positive, positive–positive–corrective, corrective–positive–positive, and no feedback), presented in a counterbalanced fashion. Half of the participants received individual verbal feedback delivered privately by the researcher immediately after each session, and the remaining participants received the same type of feedback immediately before each session. The aggregate data suggested no feedback was the most efficacious for participants who experienced feedback prior to performance, and the corrective–positive–positive sequence was the most efficacious for participants who received feedback following performance. Differences in feedback timing were not significant except for the no feedback condition. These results document that the feedback sandwich was not the most efficacious sequence, despite claims to the contrary.

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10 reviews for Should You Order the Feedback Sandwich? Efficacy of Feedback Sequence and Timing

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  1. Riley J Moncrief
    5 out of 5

    Riley J Moncrief (verified buyer)

    Interesting research, important to how supervisors deliver feedback

    (0) (0)
  2. Avatar
    5 out of 5

    Natalie Yates (verified buyer)

    Helpful information not the best for a novel person to ABA

    (0) (0)
  3. Avatar
    5 out of 5

    Peter Ellis (verified buyer)

    I appreciate that the authors noted idiosyncratic differences in feedback sequences at the individual level. This highlights the importance of collecting performance outcomes on supervisees based on feedback sequence models to identify the sequence that is most effective for individual supervisees. The aggregate data may provide a starting point, but individual data are needed as well.

    (0) (0)
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    5 out of 5

    Hattie Singleton (verified buyer)

    Great, simple article with helpful visuals.

    (0) (0)
  5. Avatar
    5 out of 5

    melissa miller (verified buyer)

    Great article.

    (0) (0)

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